And Jesus came up and spoke to them, saying, “All authority has been given to Me in heaven and on earth. “Go therefore and make disciples of all the nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit, teaching them to observe all that I commanded you; and lo, I am with you always, even to the end of the a Matt 28:18-20 NAS
This is a passage of Scripture that is often called the “Great Commission”. It is where missionaries have traditionally gotten their “marching orders” to go to other countries and evangelize unreached people.
I first heard this message at a concert on Maui by a famous Christian singer, who’s latest album was titled “Jesus Commands Us To Go!”. I was so excited afterward that I told my cousin Kean that I was ready to go to any place and tell the people about Jesus.
He looked at me, and with a smile asked me: “How would you like to go to an island in the Pacific where less than five percent of the people attend church on Sunday?”
I responded excitedly: “Let’s go!”.
He calmly said: “You are standing on it!”
In the early 1980’s, church attendance on Maui was incredibly low. I got the message. Maui was a good place to share the Good News. I didn’t have to “go”.
I was already “there”.
It was a few years later in my studies that I understood why the Great Commission is often misunderstood as a command to pack your bags, leave your home, and go work in a foreign culture. There area a few words in the famous passage that should be understood in their original context.
The word translated “Go” is the Greek word “poreuomai” which has the meaning to pursue the journey on which one has entered; to continue on one’s journey; to proceed.
“Therefore” is the Greek word “oun” which means then, therefore, accordingly, consequently, these things being so.
The next word, translated “Make Disciples” is the key word. It is mathēteuō, which has the meaning of: to be a disciple of one, to follow his precepts and instructions; or to make a disciple; to teach, instruct. Of the four verbs in this passage (Go, make, teach, baptize) this word mathēteuō is only verb in the Imperative (aorist), command form. The other three verbs are in the “continuous action” form.
The final significant word, often translated “Nations” is Ethnos: a race, nation, people group. Putting all these concepts together, and understanding the grammar, we hear Jesus literally saying:
All Authority in the Universe has been given to me. Since these things are so, pursue the journey on which you have entered, and disciple the races and ethnic people groups, teaching them all the things I told you and baptizing them. Remember, I will be with you always as you do this.”
Where ever in the world that we happen to be “going”, Jesus commands us to be about the business of making disciples, baptizing them, and teaching them the Word of God. It is that direct, and that simple. Peter was told by Jesus (John 21) to not only “follow” but to “Feed My Sheep” and “Tend My Lambs”.
The First stage in Discipleship is Being a Disciple of Jesus.
This second stage is the natural progression of every true disciple: Making Disciples.
Paul communicated a similar message to his disciple Timothy.
You have heard me teach many things that have been confirmed by many reliable witnesses. Teach these great truths to trustworthy people who are able to pass them on to others. 2 Timothy 2:2
There are many “modern formulas” for discipleship. Some involve heavy-handed authoritarian oversight of new converts, while others focus on simply numbers of personal commitments to Christ. These programs often set aside time in the week for “disciple-making activities” that will bring people into the church in a focused, systematic manner. Building the Kingdom becomes a “program” that if we put in our time, and follow the formula, that will bring “great numbers” into our local churches.
The Biblical record suggests another manner. We see it in the life of Jesus, and in the lives of the brothers and sisters of the Early Church. Some of my most significant learning experiences in life have followed this model of relational discipleship.
Think back on how you have acquired a skill or knowledge. It’s a process that here on Earth usually involves four steps, in this order:
1) I do it; 2) I do it with You; 3) You do it with Me; 4) You do it.
It is these four natural steps were we learn skills, and where we impart skills.
What is the lifestyle of the Christian to be?
How do we become “instinctive” disciple makers?
Obviously the first place to go is the life of Jesus. What was His “methods” of bringing people into the Kingdom? How did He reach the crowds, and work with individuals.
It also helps to then look at what the First Century church did. We find one “instructional section” in the book of Acts, and another in Paul’s first letter to his friends in Thessalonica.
First, let’s look at The Master of Making Disciples. Jesus Himself gives us the ultimate example of a lifestyle of discipleship. He once gave his disciples a very culturally significant illustration of how to begin making disciples:
“You are the salt of the earth. But what good is salt if it has lost its flavor? Can you make it useful again? It will be thrown out and trampled underfoot as worthless. You are the light of the world—like a city on a mountain, glowing in the night for all to see. Don’t hide your light under a basket! Instead, put it on a stand and let it shine for all. In the same way, let your good deeds shine out for all to see, so that everyone will praise your heavenly Father. Matthew 5:13-16
Photo: Mikaela collecting salt at the Dead Sea
The typical modern understanding of these verses is found in F.F. Bruce’ book, The Hard Sayings of Jesus:
“This implies that the disciples have a particular function to perform on earth, and that if they fail to perform it, they might as well not exist, for all the good they will do. In what respect they are said to be salt is not specified, so the nature of their function has to be inferred from the context and from what is know of the effect of salt; They may be intended to have a preserving and purifying effect on their fellows, or to add zest to the life of the community, or to be a force for peace. The idea of an insipid Christian ought to be a contradiction in terms.”
Although this understanding may make sense to the modern reader, the message for the First Century audience was more focused and specific. Looking at this passage through the eyes of those First Century disciples gives us a Cultural Understanding, and a clue to truly effective discipleship.
Salt had a special significance to Biblical people. It was used for flavoring food, and for “salting” fish and other meats to prolong their shelf life. If you go into a Bedouin tent today, you will find a bowl with salt (often clumped together with dirt) on the table. You reach with your hand, crumble the salt, and then sprinkle it over your food. When there becomes more dirt in the bowl than salt, the woman of the tent comes over, takes the bowl and throws the contents out of the tent. Then she brings a fresh clump of salt to the table. Archaeologists often identify the street of ancient cities by the salt content of the soil.
Salt has a deeper meaning to Middle Eastern people. In a modern Bedouin marriage ceremony, salt is placed between the hands of the bride and groom as they are pronounced husband and wife. To the Biblical person as well as the modern Middle Eastern, salt has the significance of loyalty and fidelity. Again Jesus helps us understand this meaning.
Salt is good for seasoning. But if it loses its flavor, how do you make it salty again? You must have the qualities of salt among yourselves and live in peace with each other.” Mark 9:50
Jesus was instructing his disciples to be known by their loyalty to their friends and family. This is consistent to other Biblical teaching about relationships, gossip, and disunity. Paul instructed the believers in Colossae to:
Let you speech always be with grace, as though seasoned with salt, so that you will know how you should respond to each person. Colossians 4:6
Light has many usages in Biblical imagery, but the one referred to here is probably the “sanctified life” of the Believer. The Dictionary of Biblical Images states:
“In the NT, the sanctified life is repeatedly associated with light. In the famous passage on holy living that concludes the epistle to the Romans, believers are commanded to “cast off the works of darkness and put on the armour of light” (Romans 13:12). Equally evocative is the picture in Ephesians 5:8-9: “Once you were in darkness, but now you are light in the Lord, walk as children of light (for the fruit of light is found in all that is good and true”. The calling of Christians is to “shine as lights in the world” (Phil 2:15)
Living as “Salt & Light”, through sanctified lives with loyal, giving hearts, is the model for building relationships for the Kingdom. It is the “Love God, Love Your Neighbor” commandment that Jesus says sums up the entire Hebrew Scriptures (Torah and the Prophets). It is at the heart of the Christian Lifestyle of Making Disciples.
While modern methods of evangelism and discipleship may focus on tracts, response to sermons, Bible classes and Discipleship programs, Jesus gave us a model of “relational discipleship”.
What was the “Jesus Method”?
Traditionally, we think that the disciples saw Jesus, heard his call, and dropped everything to follow Him. We get this idea when we read Matthew’s account of Peter’s call:
One day as Jesus was walking along the shore beside the Sea of Galilee, he saw two brothers—Simon, also called Peter, and Andrew—fishing with a net, for they were commercial fishermen. Jesus called out to them, “Come, be my disciples, and I will show you how to fish for people!” And they left their nets at once and went with him A little farther up the shore he saw two other brothers, James and John, sitting in a boat with their father, Zebedee, mending their nets. And he called them to come, too. They immediately followed him, leaving the boat and their father behind. Matthew 4:18-22 (NLT)
Photo: Sunrise on the Sea of Galilee with the birds "fishing".
It helps to understand the objectives of the writer of the Gospel to draw out the eternal principles. Matthew’s purpose was to tell us Jesus’ words. His gospel is really five sermons that Jesus gave, with selected information that connects it all together.
Luke, on the other hand, had a very specific objective in writing his account of Jesus’ life.
Inasmuch as many have undertaken to compile an account of the things accomplished among us, just as they were handed down to us by those who from the beginning were eyewitnesses and servants of the word, it seemed fitting for me as well, having investigated everything carefully from the beginning, to write it out for you in consecutive order, most excellent Theophilus; so that you may know the exact truth about the things you have been taught. Luke 1:1-4 NAS
Luke, with his logical Greek mind, was all about putting things in order. Let’s take a look at the chronological order of Jesus’ relationship with His Disciples. We see the following:
Luke 4:31: Jesus enters Capernaum;
4:31-37 Teaching, Healing, Demonic Cleansing;
4:38-39 Heals Peter’s mother-in-law, then eats with them;
5:2 Borrows Peter’s boat for teaching;
5:4-7 Sends out Peter’s boats for the “Big Catch”
5:6 Peter’s confession
5:9-11 Call of Peter, James, John
As Luke describes it, Jesus shows up in Capernaum and begins His ministry. Peter's mother-n-law gets touched. She invites Jesus over for a meal. People flock to Peter's house. Peter is aware of what is going on.
Photo: Dr Randy Smith teaching in Capernaum at the site of the "fisherman's home" where most think Peter lived.
When Jesus borrows Peter's boat to speak to the crowd, He already has a relationship with Peter. When He sends Peter and his friends out to the lake to fish again, a miracle occurs. Peter's response makes no sense unless we know they have already spent much time together.
When he had finished speaking, he said to Simon, “Now go out where it is deeper, and let down your nets to catch some fish.”
“Master,” Simon replied, “we worked hard all last night and didn’t catch a thing. But if you say so, I’ll let the nets down again.”
And this time their nets were so full of fish they began to tear! A shout for help brought their partners in the other boat, and soon both boats were filled with fish and on the verge of sinking.
When Simon Peter realized what had happened, he fell to his knees before Jesus and said, “Oh, Lord, please leave me—I’m such a sinful man.”For he was awestruck by the number of fish they had caught, as were the others with him. His partners, James and John, the sons of Zebedee, were also amazed.
Jesus replied to Simon, “Don’t be afraid! From now on you’ll be fishing for people!” And as soon as they landed, they left everything and followed Jesus.
There is a pattern that Jesus has when it comes to evangelism and discipleship. First He “notices” (Matthew 9:9 & Mark 2:14) a person or group. Then we see Jesus “hanging out” (Matthew 9:10 & Mark 2:15) with this person or small group.
A good example of this willingness to ‘hang” with strangers is Jesus’ encounter with the Samaritian woman at Jacob’s well in Sychar. Normally Jews and Samaritians didn’t interact, especially women and men. This meeting took place in the middle of a travel day, and Jesus was in need of a drink from the well, but He knew that the woman was in need of a drink of His Living Water. The fact that she was at the well at the middle of the day rather than the customary early morning time when most of the other women from the village came for their household water indicates that this woman was not part of the village social network, which was later confirmed by Jesus’ prophetic words to her.
Soon a Samaritan woman came to draw water, and Jesus said to her, “Please give me a drink.” He was alone at the time because his disciples had gone into the village to buy some food.
The woman was surprised, for Jews refuse to have anything to do with Samaritans. She said to Jesus, “You are a Jew, and I am a Samaritan woman. Why are you asking me for a drink?”
Jesus replied, “If you only knew the gift God has for you and who I am, you would ask me, and I would give you living water.”
“But sir, you don’t have a rope or a bucket,” she said, “and this is a very deep well. Where would you get this living water? And besides, are you greater than our ancestor Jacob who gave us this well? How can you offer better water than he and his sons and his cattle enjoyed?”
Jesus replied, “People soon become thirsty again after drinking this water. But the water I give them takes away thirst altogether. It becomes a perpetual spring within them, giving them eternal life.”
“Please, sir,” the woman said, “give me some of that water! Then I’ll never be thirsty again, and I won’t have to come here to haul water.”
“Go and get your husband,” Jesus told her.
“I don’t have a husband,” the woman replied.
Jesus said, “You’re right! You don’t have a husband—for you have had five husbands, and you aren’t even married to the man you’re living with now.”
“Sir,” the woman said, “you must be a prophet!” John 4:7-19
Notice how Jesus reaches out with courtesy to this woman, and how He brings the conversation to a spiritual level. He sparks her interest and she responds. He then gives her a “Word of Knowledge” (1 Cor 12:8) that touches her spirit. Soon she is convinced that He is indeed the Messiah.
Many Samaritans from the village believed in Jesus because the woman had said, “He told me everything I ever did!” When they came out to see him, they begged him to stay at their village. So he stayed for two days, long enough for many of them to hear his message and believe. John 4:39-41
Jesus was willing to interact with total strangers, in hope that He would have opportunity to give them the message of restored relationship with God. He trusted in His divine ability to speak truth in their lives. He knew that strangers responded to kindness and attentiveness. In these encounters, he often stepped across cultural barriers and shared his meals with the unsaved.
Tax collectors and other notorious sinners often came to listen to Jesus teach. This made the Pharisees and teachers of religious law complain that he was associating with such despicable people—even eating with them! Luke 15:1-2
According to the traditions of the religious sects, physical contact with non-Jews and lower class “unclean” people made you “unclean”. They would never allow such sinful people touch them, or share food with them. Jesus was not constrained by these artificial religious barriers. He was willing to spend time with any potential disciple. Here is one good example recorded in the book of Luke.
Jesus entered Jericho and made his way through the town. 2 There was a man there named Zacchaeus. He was one of the most influential Jews in the Roman tax-collecting business, and he had become very rich. 3 He tried to get a look at Jesus, but he was too short to see over the crowds. 4 So he ran ahead and climbed a sycamore tree beside the road, so he could watch from there.
5 When Jesus came by, he looked up at Zacchaeus and called him by name. “Zacchaeus!” he said. “Quick, come down! For I must be a guest in your home today.”
6 Zacchaeus quickly climbed down and took Jesus to his house in great excitement and joy. 7 But the crowds were displeased. “He has gone to be the guest of a notorious sinner,” they grumbled.
8 Meanwhile, Zacchaeus stood there and said to the Lord, “I will give half my wealth to the poor, Lord, and if I have overcharged people on their taxes, I will give them back four times as much!”
9 Jesus responded, “Salvation has come to this home today, for this man has shown himself to be a son of Abraham. Luke 19:1-9 (NLT)
Photo: Lukas in Jericho at the ancient city dig.
Jesus shared many meals with his disciples as well as strangers. Remember, in the mind of the Middle Easterner, you only eat with your friends. Jesus, through cultural language, was extending his friendship to these outcasts from Jewish society. In an interesting side note, we see Jesus’ disciples constantly arguing over “who is the greatest”. We may wonder why, until we realize that the seating arrangement at a First Century meal was fixed- the “greatest” always sat to the right of the host. Many times when they were arguing this, they were on their way to dine! Sharing meals together was a very significant event!
We also see Jesus teaching to large crowds, and to his “small group”. He used the “crowd” setting to say things that would draw many to more intimate encounters with him and his disciples. He understood the value of having a small group that He could not only share words, but also His lifestyle.
Once again Jesus began teaching by the lakeshore. There was such a large crowd along the shore that he got into a boat and sat down and spoke from there. 2 He began to teach the people by telling many stories such as this one:
3 “Listen! A farmer went out to plant some seed. 4 As he scattered it across his field, some seed fell on a footpath, and the birds came and ate it. 5 Other seed fell on shallow soil with underlying rock. The plant sprang up quickly, 6 but it soon wilted beneath the hot sun and died because the roots had no nourishment in the shallow soil. 7 Other seed fell among thorns that shot up and choked out the tender blades so that it produced no grain. 8 Still other seed fell on fertile soil and produced a crop that was thirty, sixty, and even a hundred times as much as had been planted.” Then he said, 9 “Anyone who is willing to hear should listen and understand!”
10 Later, when Jesus was alone with the twelve disciples and with the others who were gathered around, they asked him, “What do your stories mean?”
11 He replied, “You are permitted to understand the secret about the Kingdom of God. But I am using these stories to conceal everything about it from outsiders, 12 so that the Scriptures might be fulfilled: Mark 4:1-11
Mark goes on to explain this interaction with the crowd and small group:
33 He used many such stories and illustrations to teach the people as much as they were able to understand. 34 In fact, in his public teaching he taught only with parables, but afterward when he was alone with his disciples, he explained the meaning to them. Mark 4:33
In addition to building relationships through hanging out, sharing meals, teaching moments, Jesus was also willing to be interrupted in his teaching and discipling ministry. One example is the account of a day (Luke 8) that included interruptions from a demonized man, a leader of the synagogue in Capernaum, and a woman in the crowd. Luke records a typical “interruption” later on in chapter 18.
As they approached Jericho, a blind beggar was sitting beside the road. 36 When he heard the noise of a crowd going past, he asked what was happening. 37 They told him that Jesus of Nazareth was going by. 38 So he began shouting, “Jesus, Son of David, have mercy on me!” 39 The crowds ahead of Jesus tried to hush the man, but he only shouted louder, “Son of David, have mercy on me!”
40 When Jesus heard him, he stopped and ordered that the man be brought to him. 41 Then Jesus asked the man, “What do you want me to do for you?”
“Lord,” he pleaded, “I want to see!”
42 And Jesus said, “All right, you can see! Your faith has healed you.” Luke 18:35-42 (NLT)
From the Gospels we can see that:
1) Jesus taught the large crowds;
2) He spent quality time with many people, from the rich and politically powerful to the down and outcasts.
3) He lived with his disciples, sharing His life with them;
3) He was willing to stop anytime to interact with anyone who was a potential disciple.
As we look at the “Jesus Method”, it would be good to consider some practical applications.
1) What is the power of loyal, faithful, giving relationships and living a truly sanctified life in our society?
2) Are we willing to be “interrupted” from out agenda and schedule and stop to serve a potential disciple?
3) How will our individual efforts combined with other Christians’ personal discipleship affect the world?
These are worthy points to ponder. Our answers will determine our effective in bringing others into the Kingdom.
Photo: Michael taking photos on Mt Arbel, above the Sea of Galilee
Next, let’s look at the lifestyles of Jesus’ disciples. What did they get from the life of Jesus that affected their disciple-making? Luke describes some powerful moments in the book of Acts that give us some answers to this question. After an incredible outpouring of the Holy Spirit on the “Second Pentecost”, Luke gives us a portrait of the daily lives of those early followers of Jesus.
They joined with the other believers and devoted themselves to the apostles’ teaching and fellowship, sharing in the Lord’s Supper and in prayer. A deep sense of awe came over them all, and the apostles performed many miraculous signs and wonders. And all the believers met together constantly and shared everything they had. They sold their possessions and shared the proceeds with those in need. They worshiped together at the Temple each day, met in homes for the Lord’s Supper, and shared their meals with great joy and generosity—all the while praising God and enjoying the goodwill of all the people. And each day the Lord added to their group those who were being saved. Acts 2:42-47
This passage gives an accurate description of the lifestyle of many of the disciples of the First Century Church. Notice how Luke describes their devotion to:
1) Studying the Word.
We have already seen the seven reasons why we should be studying the Word. Guidance, Wisdom, Correction, and Knowing God, are just a few good reasons that our modern lifestyle should include a daily ration of God’s Word.
The Greek word here is koinonia, which is defined as “close mutual association”, and “participation”. There is a special dynamic when human beings filled with God’s Holy Spirit join together. This “close mutual association” is a fertile ground for spiritual growth. It is also a place of protection.
Mutual Support is vital to the health of the Disciple and the body of Christ!
3) “Breaking Bread” - Communion - Intimate moments with God and each other
The Middle Eastern view is, “if I eat with a person, I am his friend!”. Sharing meals is a form if personal intimacy. You learn a lot about a person when you spend quality time with them. Christianity is not learning about God, but actually experiencing and enjoying our relationship with Him!
4) Prayer is communication that is essential for a healthy relationship with your Father.
The Disciples’ had a focused lifestyle of Loving God and Loving Each Other. Notice how their lifestyle included many practical expressions of their love for each other. They:
1) Met together constantly; i.e. They loved each other with their time;
2) Shared their material goods; They Loved Each Other with their possessions;
3) Worshiped together: They loved God Together;
4) Shared meals together; They Loved each other with intimate moments;
5) Praised the Lord All The Time; They maintained an attitude of Love toward God- all the time.
What was the result of this lifestyle?
“And each day the Lord added to their group those who were being saved.”
They were enjoying life, having fun. Enjoying their relationships, and while all that was going on, many people were being brought into the Kingdom. This is the effective lifestyle of evangelism and discipleship.
Photo: Dr Randy Smith teaching in the "place of reflection" in Beth Shean Israel
Now let’s fast forward a few decades to see what the next generation of disciples did in their efforts to bring people into the Kingdom. The famous missionary Paul wrote a letter to a group of his disciples in Greece about 20 years after the “Day of Pentecost”. In it, he reveals the manner in which his ministry team developed relationships, shared the Gospel, encouraged the believers, and made an effective group of disciples.
You yourselves know, dear brothers and sisters, that our visit to you was not a failure. 2 You know how badly we had been treated at Philippi just before we came to you and how much we suffered there. Yet our God gave us the courage to declare his Good News to you boldly, even though we were surrounded by many who opposed us. 3 So you can see that we were not preaching with any deceit or impure purposes or trickery.
4 For we speak as messengers who have been approved by God to be entrusted with the Good News. Our purpose is to please God, not people. He is the one who examines the motives of our hearts. 5 Never once did we try to win you with flattery, as you very well know. And God is our witness that we were not just pretending to be your friends so you would give us money! 6 As for praise, we have never asked for it from you or anyone else. 7 As apostles of Christ we certainly had a right to make some demands of you, but we were as gentle among you as a mother* feeding and caring for her own children. 8 We loved you so much that we gave you not only God’s Good News but our own lives, too.
9 Don’t you remember, dear brothers and sisters, how hard we worked among you? Night and day we toiled to earn a living so that our expenses would not be a burden to anyone there as we preached God’s Good News among you. 10 You yourselves are our witnesses—and so is God—that we were pure and honest and faultless toward all of you believers. 11 And you know that we treated each of you as a father treats his own children. 12 We pleaded with you, encouraged you, and urged you to live your lives in a way that God would consider worthy. For he called you into his Kingdom to share his glory.
13 And we will never stop thanking God that when we preached his message to you, you didn’t think of the words we spoke as being just our own. You accepted what we said as the very word of God—which, of course, it was. And this word continues to work in you who believe. 1 Thessalonians 2:1-13
Here are a few principles that we derive from Paul’s experience and methods.
1) His team proclaimed the Gospel in spite of opposition. We see that bold obedience in following the Lord leads to changed lives.
2) Paul trusted in God to do the work, and was thus freed from having to manipulate his new friends into accepting the Gospel. With our security in God, we don’t have to bend the truth, use flattery or trickery. Our objectives are to see God’s purposes served, not our own gain or fame.
3) Effective ministry is all about complete servant hood. A lifestyle of consistent selfless acts loudly proclaims God’s love for His people. Doing what is best for others has profound impact for the Gospel.
4) Disciples are made through modeling right behavior and encouraging others in practical steps of Godly character building.
5) God has a Divine Plan for each member of “His Family” which includes His Diving Power to change lives. Sticking to God’s Word and principles instead of our own words and feelings produces lasting fruit the lives of each disciple.
“You did not choose Me but I chose you, and appointed you that you would go and bear fruit, and that your fruit would remain, so that whatever you ask of the Father in My name He may give to you. John 15:5-8,16
Jesus and the disciples of the First Century Church practiced a “relational discipleship” method, which was based on the “Big Three” Commandments of the Christian Scriptures: Love God with all your heart, soul, and mind, Love your neighbor as yourself, and Proceed and Disciple the Nations. For All Modern Christians, the Three Big Commandments in the New Testament cannot be ignored. They contain the essence of the Heart of God:
- A Desire for intimacy with us;
- A desire for intimacy with one another;
- A desire to leave nobody out of God’s Great Plan for humanity
Together they form a simple, but Divine recipe for Discipleship, which no man made formulas can add to.
Photo: Michael teaching on the south steps of the Temple Mount Jerusalem
Some Tips For Developing Disciplines for Discipleship
- Think of the role models that God has given you for being and making disciples. Who is a good teacher? Who works well with children? Who handles stress well? Who is a good financial planner? Paul told his disciples in Corinth:
Be imitators of me, just as I also am of Christ. 1 Cor 11:1
- Study the Godly examples that God has placed around you. Imitate them in their Godly ways. Cultivate your relationships with them. Become their disciples.
- Notice who God has placed “in your shadow” for the purpose of discipleship. Cultivate your relationships with them.